Points - Recent Research
ShenmaYizhi Decoction Improves the Mitochondrial Structure in the Brain and Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment in VCI Rats via the AMPK/UCP2 Signaling Pathway
The Effectiveness of Laser Acupuncture for Treatment of Musculoskeletal Pain
Psoralea corylifolia L. Ameliorates Collagen-Induced Arthritis by Reducing Proinflammatory Cytokines and Upregulating Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

ShenmaYizhi Decoction Improves the Mitochondrial Structure in the Brain and Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment in VCI Rats via the AMPK/UCP2 Signaling Pathway

Chengcheng Sun, et al.


Background:
ShenmaYizhi decoction (SMYZD) is an effective prescription of traditional Chinese medicine used to treat vascular dementia (VD). Modern research methods have identified its active ingredients clearly as gastrodin, ferulic acid, ginsenosides, and ?-sitosterol. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a driving factor or risk factor for VD, which leads to the disturbance of mitochondrial structure and function.
Purpose:
To observe whether SMYZD improves cognitive impairment by improving mitochondrial structure and function.
Methods:
Forty adult rats with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) caused by the bilateral ligation of common carotid arteries were divided into four groups randomly, including the model group, donepezil group, and low-dose and high-dose SMYZD groups, with 10 rats in each group. Additionally, a sham group was established with 10 rats as the control group. The treatment groups were administered donepezil and two different dosages of SMYZD. The donepezil group was administered 0.45 mg/kg/d donepezil, and the SMYZ-L group was administered 2.97 g/kg/d SMYZ, which were equivalent to the clinical dosage. The SMYZ-H group was administered 11.88 g/kg/d SMYZ, which is 4 times higher than the clinically equivalent dosage. A sham-operated group was used as the control group and administered an equal volume of distilled water. The rats were treated by gavage for 8 consecutive weeks. Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to evaluate the learning and memory ability. The mitochondria of brain tissue were extracted from brain for further test. Mitochondrial morphology and the signal path of AMPK/PPAR?/PGC-1?/UCP2 in mitochondria were detected.
Results:
With the SMYZD intervention, behavioral performance of rats and pathological changes of mitochondria of brain tissue were signi?cantly improved. In the serum, SOD, GSH-Px, and GSH activities were increased, and the MDA content was decreased. Moreover, the AMPK, PPAR?, PGC-1?, UCP2, and ATP5A mRNA and protein expression levels were also reversed by SMYZD.
Conclusion:
SMYZD may provide a potential therapeutic strategy via activating the AMPK/PPAR?/PGC-1?/UCP2 signal pathway to improve mitochondrial structure and energy metabolism thereby alleviate vascular cognitive impairment.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2021; 17: 1937-1951. Published online 2021 Jun 16. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S302355

Source: PubMed

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The Effectiveness of Laser Acupuncture for Treatment of Musculoskeletal Pain

Yu-Chiang Hung, et al.


Objective:
To evaluate the treatment effectiveness of laser acupuncture (LA) in patients with musculoskeletal pain.
Methods:
Major electronic databases, including Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Scopus were searched to identify double-blind, randomized controlled trials of LA in musculoskeletal disorders. The primary outcome was the treatment efficacy for pain. The secondary outcomes included the comparison of disability, functional impairment, and dropout rate between LA and sham treatment, as well as the effect of sham treatment for pain. The results from included studies were synthesized with the random effects model.
Results:
In total, 20 articles comprising 568 patients receiving LA and 534 patients receiving sham treatment were included in the current study. Our analysis showed LA significantly reduced pain (g=0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.35 to 1.42, p=0.001), disability (g=0.68, 95% CI=0.29 to 1.08, p<0.001), and functional impairment (g=0.67, 95% CI=0.32 to 1.03, p<0.001). Through meta-regression analysis, we found these effects were not moderated by mean age, the percentage of females, or treatment duration. Additionally, there was no significant difference between the two groups in dropout rate (risk ratio=0.73, p=0.08), and the sham treatment significantly reduced only pain intensity (g=0.54, 95% CI=0.32 to 0.77, p<0.001).
Conclusions:
Our findings supported that LA significantly reduced pain, disability, and functional impairment in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Further researches are required to determine the optimal therapeutic parameters and the suitable patients for receiving LA.

J Pain Res. 2021; 14: 1707-1719. Published online 2021 Jun 14. doi: 10.2147/JPR.S308876

Source: PubMed

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Psoralea corylifolia L. Ameliorates Collagen-Induced Arthritis by Reducing Proinflammatory Cytokines and Upregulating Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

Fu-Tzu Pai, et al.


Background:
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that may lead to severe complications. The fruit of Psoralea corylifolia L.(PCL) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as a well-known herbal treatment for orthopedic diseases. However, there is a lack of studies of its effects on rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of concentrated herbal granules of PCL on rheumatoid arthritis to provide some insights for future development of new drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Methods:
We used collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) DBA/1J mice as an experimental model to mimic human rheumatoid arthritis. The mice were immunized with collagen on days 0 and 21 and then orally administered 200 mg/kg/day PCL on days 22-49. Starch was used as a control. The mice were sacrificed on day 50. Clinical phenotypes, joint histopathology, and immunological profiles were measured.
Results:
Compared to the CIA or CIA + Starch group, the CIA + PCL group had significantly ameliorated clinical severity and decreased paw swelling. Histopathological analysis of the hind paws showed that PCL mitigated the erosion of cartilage and the proliferation of synovial tissues. There were significant differences in the levels of TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-17A, as measured by ELISA, and the percentages of CD4 + IL-17A+, CD4 + TNF-?+, CD4 + IFN-?+ T cells. Furthermore, we also found that in mice treated with CIA + PCL, the percentage and number of bone marrow-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs; Gr1+ CD11b+) increased significantly.
Conclusions:
We provided evidence for the potential antiarthritic effects of PCL through the inhibition of inflammation and increase of MDSCs. These findings indicate that PCL may be a promising therapeutic herb for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

Life (Basel). 2021 Jun; 11(6): 587.Published online 2021 Jun 21. doi: 10.3390/life11060587d arthritis.

Source: PubMed

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